Further resources

Information on protists is scattered among different specialist literatures. For example, there are usually separate textbooks for algae and protozoa. The following list includes some books that are hard to find, especially in Singapore.


  • Linda E Graham, James M Graham, Lee W Wilcox (2009) Algae, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
  • Lynn Margulis, Karlene V Schwartz (1998) Five Kingdoms: An illustrated guide to the phyla of life on Earth, 3rd ed. WH Freeman.
    This book attempts to cover all known organisms, including protists. Good overview of the biology of different major groups. 
  • David J Patterson (2003) Free-living freshwater protozoa: a colour guide. Washington DC: ASM Press.
    Very useful illustrated key for freshwater protists excluding algae, with references to specialist literature. Includes most common genera and has both photomicrographs and line drawings. The identifications on this website are mostly based on this guide.
  • John J Lee, Gordon F Leedale, Phyllis Bradbury (2000) Illustrated guide to the protozoa, 2nd ed. Lawrence, Kansas: Society of Protozoologists.
    Standard reference work in two heavy volumes with detailed references and illustrations, each chapter contributed by a specialist in that group. Dated in some aspects, but the best place to begin.

A more detailed bibliography on various aspects of protist biology is available here.

Other media

  • Protistiary
    Methods for studying protists
  • Micro*scope
    Collection of information and photographs on microbes, based at the MBL.
  • Encyclopedia of Life
    Project to give every species its own webpage. Acts as a curated aggregator site for numerous biological diversity databases, and seeks to build up community participation.
  • Protist Information Server
    Thousands of protist photographs, mostly of Japanese species, identified and arranged taxonomically with notes on classification.
    Compilation of textual descriptions of protists, rotifers, nematodes, and oligochaetes.
  • Cytographics
    They have been producing films and videos on protist life for years. Their website offers several video clips and photographs from their collection for viewing.
  • Micscape Magazine
    Online magazine of Microscopy-UK, a website for microscopy enthusiasts. Often has illustrated articles about protists.
  • Tree of Life project
    Expert-curated information about biodiversity and evolutionary history, with featured pages on different groups of organisms. Many of the protist pages were the result of a workshop in 2008.
  • Josh’s microlife
    Website with similar objectives as this one.
  • Nikon MicroscopyU
    Link to their pond life video gallery.
  • NHM Protist Video Library
    Videos of protists from the Natural History Museum, UK. Mostly ciliates.
  • Wunderkanone
    Gallery of pictures showing microscopic life forms, much like this site.
  • It Came From The Pond
    Informative and entertaining blog by a poet-turned-naturalist
  • Microworld – World of amoeboid organisms
    Encyclopedic resource on amoeboid protists

Singapore nature and wildlife


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